11 July 2015

Unpicking the 1911 census

If there's one thing I've learned over the years of studying the British Army, and regimental numbers in particular, it's that there is usually method in the madness. It just requires de-coding.

The 1911 census is a wonderful resource for anyone with an interest in the British regular army which would, to a large degree, form part of the regular element of the BEF of 1914 and to a lesser degree, part of the regular element of the MEF of 1915. Here we have not only those units that happened to be in England and Wales when the census was taken on Sunday 2nd April, but also those that were stationed overseas as well. I personally find it easier to search these overseas' records on Findmypast, and here's how I do it.

1. Go to the A-Z search and type 1911 in the search box. The 1911 Census is the first result that appears:

2. Click on the 1911 Census and in the screen that follows, start typing Overseas Military in the County field. As you type, the words Overseas Military will appear.

3. Click on the blue Overseas Military text and see it transform into a lozenge beneath the county box. This means that you have now successfully selected this criterion:
4. Now click on the search button to reveal just how many British soldiers, serving overseas with the British Army, are at your fingertips:
So to recap, this figure is for men serving outside England, Wales, the Channel Islands, Scotland and Ireland. To find men stationed at garrisons in England, Wales and the Channel Islands you'll need to run separate searches on the England and Wales Census. To find men in Scotland and Ireland you'll need to search the census returns for those two countries.
In any event, enough of the preamble. There was no uniformity of form-filling when it came to enumerating the British Army overseas. Some returns were completed alphabetically by surname; others by longevity of service; others in company order. Officers may be enumerated with their companies or enumerated separately. Pre-war trades and professions are recorded, in error, against some names and many men may be recorded more than once: on their regimental return and also when they appear as part of a detachment on a training course in another of His Majesty's far-flung outposts.
Remember too, that on many of these returns there is useful information to be found on the address page that may not have been indexed.  Going back to our results' page of 135,853 results, I clicked on the second name that appeared: Andrews. In actual fact, "Andrews" has been indexed as the forename but as the image reveals, this is of course the man's last name.
We see that this is 7955 Rifleman Andrews and - unusually - that his regimental number and all the regimental numbers for men of the Royal Irish Rifles have also been recorded.  Now click on the "Related Images" option at the bottom of the screen and on the menu that appears, click on the Address option.
The resulting image gives us another piece of additional information: the company he was serving with:
Note that companies are not always recorded so clearly, and many companies are not actually identified at all, but it is worthwhile going over this address page with a fine toothcomb as there may be small pen or pencil annotations which can provide vital clues.
For this post though, I want to focus on the 2nd Battalion of the Leicestershire Regiment which, at first sight, appears to have recorded its soldiers in a random fashion. That is, until you start to look a little more closely at the ages of the men and start cross referencing the names against other surviving military records. Again, I use Findmypast to check records in WO 363, WO 364 and the pre-war WO 97 series and also the medal index cards index on The National Archives' site. I could run the same search on Findmypast's version of the MICs but I just find it easier and quicker to use the National Archives' option.
Here we can see already that a pattern is emerging. The lowest regimental number that I found was 2308 for 40-year-old Frank Hebb who had joined the regiment in May 1888. Next on the list is 2703 Alfred Higgs who joined the regiment in November 1889, and so on. All these annotated men on the screenshot above have surviving service records in WO 97.
Moving further along through the returns, it becomes easier and easier to find men and start building a picture of how long they had been serving with the regiment. There are thirty lines per page and by the time I reached men who had enlisted in 1908 I was finding the majority of these men on medal index cards:
Furthermore, because the Leicestershire Regiment was so fastidious in recording men in order of seniority of service, it becomes possible to fill in regimental numbers for some men even if they have no surviving service record or MIC. In the example above, if William Derry was number 8322 and Albert Black was number 8324, the man in the middle - Frederick Thomas Wheeler - can only have been 8323. Using this logic, I have been able to fill in numbers for men who have no surviving paperwork at all.
As for ascertaining the year that these men joined, you have three options:
1. Use the resources on this blog to gauge an approximate year of enlistment
3. Do the donkey work yourself.
As far as the Leicesters are concerned, these men stationed at Fort St George, Madras had a huge range of experience - from the old hand like Frank Hebb with nearly 23 years of service under his belt, to 8965 Edwin Day who had only joined the regiment in 1910.
Following Edwin Day's entry comes a mixed bag of 15 men, who were possibly languishing in the infirmary, and then the schoolmaster and armourer sergeant. Last but not least come the 27 officers, beginning with 49-year-old Lt-Colonel Lionel Copley Shearer and ending up with a somewhat seasoned second lieutenant and widower, 46-year-old Walter Frederick Hammond. 
Screenshots on this page courtesy of Findmypast and The National Archives. The man at the top of this post is 9732 Stan Brown who was a youngster with the 1st Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment in Ireland when Britain went to war in August 1914. Had he joined a little earlier, and had Britain gone to war in 1915 rather than 1914, Stan would have joined these men of the 2nd Leicestershire Regiment in India. As it was he, along with other young and inexperienced troops, augmented by reservists, were first out to the continent in September 1914 whilst the 2nd Battalion did not arrive back from overseas (via Suez) until October 1914. Such was the scenario repeated throughout the British Army. You can read more about Stan's war on my WW1 Veterans Blog.
For help with your own regimental numbering or military research conundrums, check out my military research service.


Linda said...

My father was in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment and fought in WWII. You have a fascinating blog. Warm greetings from Montreal, Canada.

Paul Nixon said...

Linda, thanks for taking the trouble to comment, and I'm glad you find the blog of interest. It's been a labour of love for a number of years.


Anonymous said...

Hi Paul

S/Major Henry Cox was No. 3595 H Cox. He is on the Delhi Durbar Medal Roll along with the CO Lt Col L C Sherer - they were the only two to be warded the DD 1911 medal in the 2nd Bn Leicestershire Regt.

He doesn't quite fit the theory of time served, but he was young for a S/Mahor (36) and may well have been an exceptional talent. The alternative explanation is that he transferred in from another regiment and his 'late' Army Number simply reflects this.

The main point is that sources such as the Delhi Durbar medal roll and the QSA and KSA might help fill in some of the blanks on your 1911 Irish Census. Ancestry was the source although having recently tried FMP I find the latter has a much better search function that I know you know well.

Great work. I raise my hat to you.


Paul Nixon said...

The hat-raising is mutual, Martin; thank you too for the work you are doing.